Environment

Environmental data including emissions, energy, water and waste

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Direct (Scope 1) Emissions

2022metric tons CO2e 2021metric tons CO2e 2020metric tons CO2e
Direct (Scope 1) emissions 30,400,715 21,370,485 15,485,363
Mainline aircraft direct emissions 30,263,431 21,253,316 15,392,492
Conventional jet fuel 30,263,216
Sustainable aviation fuel – CH4 and N2O 215
Mainline vehicles (diesel, gasoline, CNG, LPG)2 47,447 38,242 24,766
Facilities (natural gas combustion, engine test cells) 89,837 81,997 70,797
Dry ice from catering 0 1,720 2,015

Biogenic Emissions – Outside Of Scopes

2022metric tons CO2e 2021metric tons CO2e 2020metric tons CO2e
Biogenic Emissions – Outside Of Scopes 26,806
Mainline aircraft emissions – CO2 from sustainable aviation fuel 26,806

Indirect (Scope 2) emissions

2022metric tons CO2e 2021metric tons CO2e 2020metric tons CO2e
Indirect (Scope 2) emissions 149,252 160,794 175,087
Electricity consumption (location-based) 166,757 183,311 196,066
Electricity consumption (market-based) 149,251 160,794 175,087
Steam consumption 0 0 0

Other Indirect (Scope 3) Emissions

2022metric tons CO2e 2021metric tons CO2e 2020metric tons CO2e
Other Indirect (Scope 3) emissions 13,343,676 5,561,745 4,280,317
Category 3 – Mainline aircraft fuel production 7,250,196
Conventional jet fuel 7,246,478
Sustainable aviation fuel 3,718
Category 4 – Regional aircraft direct emissions and fuel production 5,587,322
Regional aircraft and bus-operated flights flown under capacity purchase agreement – direct emissions 4,504,664 5,294,725 4,053,435
Regional vehicles (diesel, gasoline, CNG, LPG)2 14,533 15,481 13,658
Regional aircraft flown under capacity purchase agreement – fuel production 1,030,688
Regional aircraft flown on an at-risk basis – fuel production 37,437
Category 7 – Employee commuting 111,108 52,278 80,980
Category 14 – Regional aircraft flown on an at-risk basis 163,902
Category 15 – Ownership stake in Azul Brazilian Airlines 229,912 199,099 132,220
Category 15 – United Airlines Ventures investments3 1,236 162 24

Gross Emissions

2022metric tons CO2e 2021metric tons CO2e 2020metric tons CO2e
Gross GHG emissions 43,893,642 27,093,024 19,940,767
Carbon offsets 0 0 (4,106)
Net GHG emissions 43,893,642 27,093,024 19,936,661

Efficiency numbers

2022 2021 2020
Revenue passenger-miles (RPM), in millions – consolidated 206,791 128,979 73,883
Metric tons CO2e per million RPMs – consolidated4 211.1 208.5 268.1
Metric tons CO2e per million RPMs – consolidated5 211.1 208.5 268.2
Revenue ton-miles (RTMs), in millions – mainline 25,381 15,371 9,755
Revenue ton-miles (RTMs), in millions – consolidated 27,073
Revenue ton-miles (RTMs), in millions – regional 1,692
Revenue ton-miles (RTMs), in millions – cargo 63
Revenue tonnes-kilometers (RTKs), in millions – consolidated 39,526
Metric tons CO2e per million RTMs – mainline4 1,203.3 1,401.1 1,605.9
Available seat-miles (ASMs), in millions – consolidated 247,858 178,684 122,804
Metric tons CO2e per million ASMs – consolidated4 176.2 150.5 161.3
Metric tons CO2e per million ASMs – consolidated5 176.2 150.5 161.3

Energy consumption

2022 2021 2020
Conventional jet fuel – Mainline aircraft, in millions of gallons 3,139 2,205 1,600
Sustainable aviation fuel – Mainline aircraft, in millions of gallons 3 1 1
Lifecycle reduction from SAF 86.9%
Emissions reductions from SAF (metric tons CO2e) 3,419
Conventional jet fuel – Regional aircraft, in millions of gallons 466 523 404
Electricity (MWh) 435,259 447,714 477,751
Natural gas (MM BTUs) 1,628,722 1,494,698 1,264,964

Local air quality

Nitrogen Oxide emissions

2022tons 2021tons 2020tons
NOx emissions from mainline aircraft 14,948 10,813 7,660
NOx emissions (old) 16,144 11,626 8,565
Mainline aircraft (jet fuel) 14,948 10,813 7,660
Vehicles (diesel, gasoline, CNG, LPG)2 1,196 813 905
Facilities (Natural gas combustion, engine test cells) 153 121 130

Sulfur Dioxide emissions

2022tons 2021tons 2020tons
SO2 emissions from mainline aircraft 1,413 1,022 730
SO2 emissions (old) 1,414 1,022 731
Mainline aircraft (jet fuel) 1,413 1,022 730
Vehicles (diesel, gasoline, CNG, LPG) 0 0 0
Facilities (Natural gas combustion, engine test cells) 1 1 1

Carbon Monoxide emissions

2022tons 2021tons 2020tons
CO emissions from mainline aircraft 7,805 5,503 3,743
CO emissions (old) 16,759 10,507 9,207
Mainline aircraft (jet fuel) 7,805 5,503 3,743
Vehicles (diesel, gasoline, CNG, LPG)2 8,864 4,921 5,388
Facilities (Natural gas combustion, engine test cells) 91 83 76

Download our GHG Emissions Verification Report


Waste management

2022metric tons 2021metric tons 2020metric tons
Waste – total 25,176 31,407 26,667
Hazardous and non-hazardous waste generation 22,399 24,253 15,602
Catering – Municipal waste 2,776 10,367 11,066
Hazardous Moved to new category Moved to new category Moved to new category
Non-hazardous/other waste Moved to new category Moved to new category Moved to new category
Recycling – total 6,112 5,818 4,468
Non-catering – recycled 5,255 4,446 3,302
Catering – recycled 857 1,372 1,166

Water consumption

2022millions of gallons 2021millions of gallons 2020millions of gallons
Billed water consumption6 329 661 484

Footnotes

  1. United accounts emissions reductions associated with the use and combustion of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) to be a Scope 1 reduction, as it is in-sector and a sustainable alternative to the conventional jet fuel usage that is accounted in the gross emissions of this Scope. This is an interpretation of the GHG Protocol, until such time that an accepted GHG accounting methodology is developed to reflect in-sector reductions associated to biogenic products.
  2. United changed to a more straightforward methodology to determine GHG emissions from GSE starting with 2018 reporting, but has not restated prior years; this change also re-allocated GHG emissions between Mainline and Regional GSE
  3. United Airlines Ventures investments in Alder Fuels, Archer Aviation, Boom, Clear, Fulcrum BioEnergy, Heart Aerospace, and ZeroAvia (some of which may not have developed GHG inventories yet)
  4. Excludes United Airlines Ventures investments and ownership stake in Azul Brazilian Airlines
  5. Excludes SAF, United Airlines Ventures Investments, and ownership stake in Azul Brazilian Airlines
  6. Does not account for all United locations or locations shared with other companies (e.g., airport terminals) and as a result may change considerably from year to year

Totals may not add up due to rounding.